Differences between the Process Approach and the Genre Approach
In the process approach, the steps or stages are illustrated and practiced from the generation of ideas and compilation of information through a series of activities for planning, gathering information, drafting, revising, and editing (Campbell, 1998, p. 11).
This sequence of activities typically occurs in four stages: “"prewriting, composing/ drafting, revising, and editing”" (Badger & White, 2000, p. 154). Prewriting is the phase of ideagathering. Drafting is the process of writing a rough outline of what will be addressed.
Once students produce a rough draft, they read it again and share it with peers or a teacher to receive comments. Then they make modifications to their writings based on the feedback from their peers or a teacher; revising, or elaborating on the first draft, takes place at this point. Editing, correcting mechanical errors like spelling or punctuation, is the last stage. Proponents of the process approach argue that the procedures of process writing
help learners to develop more effective ways of conveying meaning and to better comprehend the content that they want to express. They strongly believe that students can discover what they want to say and write more successfully through the process model than the genre approach, as the process approach is viewed as writercentered (Walsh, 2004, p. 15). However, none of the process writing procedures of the past sufficiently dealt with linguistic knowledge, such as grammar and the organization of content [maybe just ‘'grammar and organization’'], as much as necessary. Even though the final stage of editing addressed some mechanical features of language, they were mainly concerned with the skills of processing ideas like planning and drafting. Furthermore, the process approach has a very restricted view of writing, in that the approach presumes that writing proficiency takes place only with the support of the repeated exercise of the same writing procedures. Although it is obvious that the amounts of pre-writing necessary for writing a personal letter and for creating an academic research paper are different, in the process model, the practice of writing is identical regardless of what the topic is and who the writer or the reader is (Badger & White, 2000, pp. 154-155). In the genre approach, on the other hand, the knowledge of language is intimately attached to a social purpose, and more focus is on the viewpoint of the reader than on that of the writer. Writing is mostly viewed as the students’' reproduction of text based on the genre offered by the teacher. It is also believed that learning takes place through imitation and exploration of different kinds of models. Accordingly, learners should be exposed to many examples of the same genre to develop their ability to write a particular genre. Through exposure to similar texts, students can detect the specialized configurations of that genre, and they also can activate their memories of prior reading or writing experiences whenever they encounter the task of creating a new piece in a familiar genre (Badger & White, 2000, pp. 155-156).
When it comes to explaining writing development in the genre approach, Hammond (1992, as cited in Burns, 2001) proposed “"a wheel model of a teachinglearning cycle having three phases: modeling, joint negotiation of text by learners and teacher, and the independent construction of texts by learners”" (p. 202). Modeling, Hammond noted, is the time when the target genre that students should construct is introduced to them [the students]. At this
stage, discussion focuses on the educational and social function of the genre, and analysis focuses on the text structure and language. Joint negotiation of text refers to the stage when learners carry out exercises which manipulate relevant language forms. It fosters a negotiating process between the teacher and the students. It involves reading, research, and disseminating information, and the text of the genre is dependent on those activities. The independent construction of texts is the final phase, in which learners produce actual texts through activities such as choosing a topic, researching, and writing (p. 202).
Proponents such as Kay and Dudley- Evans (1998) have argued that the genre approach is more effective for learners to advance their writing skills in a second language than the process approach since the model helps free students from their severe worries over writing (p. 310). For instance, at the University of Brunei Darussalsam, Henry and Roseberry (1998) did an experimental study in academic classes using short tourist information texts in English. Participants in this research were divided into two groups: a group which used the genre-based instructions and a group which did not employ the genre approach in the same writing task. After three weeks, participants took a test. The genre group did better than the non-genre group, and the data showed that 36 knowledge of the typical structure of the content made it easier for learners to arrange their ideas in terms of both achieving their communicative goals and producing more well-organized writing. It proved that the learners’' understanding of both the rhetorical structure and the linguistic features was increased by the genre-based instructions.
단순히 genre-based writing을 적으니까, 모범답안이랑 다르더라구요.
그래서 찾아봤는데, 김재균 쌤 모범답안이랑 비슷한 아티클이 있어서 드래그 해놨어요.
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